Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Resistance Essays - Inorganic Solvents, Drug Paraphernalia

Obstruction Wellbeing - should consistently wear security glasses and we ought to be mindful so as not to drop any corrosive. Reasonable test-we should ensure that we utilize a similar size, sum what's more, generally a similar mass of chips, this is on the grounds that we need to keep the chips generally a similar entirely through the analysis so it will be a reasonable test and the outcomes we be comparable to one another, in any case the outcomes will be totally extraordinary to what we will expect and it will destroy the trial. We should likewise take our readings at similar stretches all through the analysis for example I will take a perusing at regular intervals for the entirety of my tests. I anticipate that the more thought the corrosive the faster the response will take place, in light of the fact that the more focused the corrosive is then it will make the chips respond quicker and more hydrogen will be radiated in a snappier time. The littler the stones are, the much snappier the response will occur, this is on the grounds that the corrosive has a littler surface zone to follow up on. Gear We will require a bubbling tube, calcium carbonate chips, hydrochloric corrosive, water, a stop watch, a gas syringe and a bung on the highest point of the bubbling cylinder with a conveyance tube associated to the gas syringe. I will likewise require a stand and a brace to clutch the syringe. Technique When doing my investigations I will utilize a similar methodology all through. When I have set up the mechanical assembly I will allot 5cm3 of corrosive in an estimating cylinder and afterward empty it into a bubbling cylinder. At that point I will be prepared with the stop watch and afterward rapidly drop in the chips into the corrosive, push on the bung and start the stop watch. This should all be done in a short space of time. From that point, I should take the perusing from the volume in the gas syringe at regular intervals precisely until it perusing isn't changing very much. I should record the outcomes in a table and afterward review it flawless later. The factors which may influence how well the trial functions are the means by which rapidly the chips are placed in and afterward the bungplaced on and the stop watch squeezed. Despite the fact that this is a factor it isn't generally a main consideration that will influence the final products, what's more, as long as the time everything takes is kept steady all through then it ought to not make any difference to an extreme. Different components are what sort of water to use for weakening, I could either utilize water from the tap which isn't unadulterated or it might be excessively hot or on the other hand excessively cold, or I could utilize refined water. Faucet water may have a few things in it which may influence the outcomes. The temperature additionally could influence the try provided that warmth is applied then the particles would move around additional what's more, influence the outcomes , and afterward more gas would be made. I figure I will require one outcome for every focus and later on the off chance that I have to rehash any analyses I can do. To get the best outcomes I have to utilize the hardware in the best conceivable way. A few different ways of doing this is curve the gas syringe back and forward in order to not stall out, which could influence our outcomes. Something else is sifter the chips so to get the best marbles we can. An significant point is that I should get the perfect measure of corrosive and the best size what's more, measure of marbles, in such a case that for 4mol in the event that I utilized around 4 chips, at that point excessively gas will be created and the syringe will go over the 100 mm3 region in the syringe in a speedy time, thus we won't have the option to take right readings. So to over come this difficult we will test to perceive what number of chips and at what size will be the best to utilize. This is the place my trialexperiments, that I did before I began, proved to be useful in light of the fact that it permitted me to recognize what sum and size of chips to utilize. In the wake of doing my preliminary examinations I worked out that 1 medium estimated chip around 0.63g would be ideal to utilize. In any case, I should recollect that if I utilize 1 chip then I should utilize 1 chip generally a similar size

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Macro.analysis Coca-Cola Spain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Macro.analysis Coca-Cola Spain - Essay Example Spain has been an individual from NATO since 1982 and furthermore the European Union since 1986. This EU enrollment speaks to an exceptionally critical piece of its international strategy and supports the endeavors of European political components. In this way, a stable political circumstance and conciliatory relations guarantee improvement open doors for associations that are working together in Spain, and reduces any danger of potential clashes and contradictions. ((Division of Foreign Affairs and Trade ; 2001; n.p). The Spanish food and drink part is a difficult market due to the changing climatic and soil conditions. This outcomes in erratic residential horticultural creation. In any case, the basic changes executed in Spain in the course of the most recent decade suggest that Spain will keep on offering a serious, progressively secure, steady and dependable condition to lead business for coke ( Dibbs S Simkin L; 2002 ; np) (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; 2001; np). A great deal of interest in inquire about should be done so as to present items or bundling that agrees to the social and social standards of a nation. Discussing the pattern in Spanish buyer propensities we see a moderate development the utilization of food and drinks. Families do the greater part of this spending when contrasted with lodgings, cafés and organizations. After the procedure of modernization that Spain has experienced, its well known road life has been hindered. Albeit, extraordinarily throughout the late spring season, individuals despite everything live in the city and bistro porches are discovered loaded with individuals. Along these lines, the mid year season could be a decent time for the drink organizations creating moderately higher benefits for coke too (Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong ;2006; np) Spanish creation of innovation exceptionally focused on the food and drink industry is among the most serious in the EU. The explanation for this mechanical headway has been the country’s

Sunday, August 2, 2020

Bragg, Braxton

Bragg, Braxton Bragg, Braxton, 1817â€"76, Confederate general in the U.S. Civil War, b. Warrenton, N.C. A graduate of West Point, he fought the Seminole and in the Mexican War was promoted to lieutenant colonel for distinguished service at Buena Vista. He resigned from the army in 1856 and lived on his Louisiana plantation until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he was appointed a Confederate brigadier general and assigned to command the coast from Pensacola, Fla., to Mobile, Ala. Shortly after being promoted to major general (Jan., 1862), he assumed command of Gen. A. S. Johnston's 2d Corps, leading it in the battle of Shiloh (April). With Johnston's death, Bragg was made a general, and he succeeded (June) General Beauregard in command of the Army of Tennessee. His invasion of Kentucky (Aug.â€"Oct., 1862) was unsuccessful, ending in retreat to Tennessee after Gen. D. C. Buell caught up with him at Perryville. A reorganized Union army under Gen. W. S. Rosecrans was then sent against him an d at Murfreesboro (Dec. 31, 1862â€"Jan. 2, 1863) forced him to withdraw again. In the Chattanooga campaign , Bragg, victorious in the battle of Chickamauga, laid siege to the Union army in Chattanooga, but in Nov., 1863, Gen. U. S. Grant thoroughly defeated him and forced him to retire into Georgia. Gen. J. E. Johnston took over his command (December) and Bragg went to Richmond, where he became military adviser to Jefferson Davis , with nominal rank as commander in chief of Confederate armies. After the war he was chief engineer of Alabama and later lived in Texas, where he died. See biography by D. C. Seitz (1924, repr. 1971); study by G. McWhiney (2 vol., 1969â€"91). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. History: Biographies

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Glass Menagerie Criticism Essay - 910 Words

â€Å"The Glass Menagerie,† is a woeful play, plagued by a missing father, a young man walking in the very father’s footsteps, and a mother whose only life is lived in the past. There is one other unfortunate member of this dysfunctional family—Amanda’s daughter, Laura. Laura lives in a fantasy world, afraid to face the reality of her crippled destiny. She exists in a world of glass, pretty and flawless. Laura represents the glass menagerie; this is reinforced by the disjunction of the horn from the misfit unicorn which in turn represents her handicap. The fragile Laura is treated throughout the story as though she is breakable. When she attempts to do something, her family members, â€Å"come to her rescue† and prohibit her from†¦show more content†¦As previously mentioned, the families tend to protect the affected person. Though the families have changed, the person with the disability is affected the most. Their families attribute to thi s—if at first they try to succeed in a goal and those who are meant to support them impede them, then they begin to believe that this is the way it is and that they are unable to succeed whether that statement is true or untrue. This is close in relation to a concept in psychology known as Learned Helplessness. If one encounters many failures in a situation, they begin to believe that this is the way it is and theres nothing they can do to change it. Lauras Learned Helplessness is depicted in the conversation between Jim and Laura. While speaking to Laura, Jim realizes that she has very low self esteem and responds by saying, â€Å"You know what I judge to be the trouble with you? Inferiority complex!† Jim supports his hypothesis by informing her that she is too self conscious and things she worries about really aren’t that bad, but amplified by her imagination. Laura’s vulnerability is exhibited by both her physical disability and her skewed psychologica l perspective of herself. Like Laura, glass is vulnerable. Talk of Laura’s glass menagerie enters in the midst of the conversation between her and Jim. Since Laura’s world centers around her glass collection, she attempts to interject the subject of the glass menagerie between the subjects currently beingShow MoreRelated Comparing the Life of Tennessee Williams and Glass Menagerie707 Words   |  3 PagesParallels in the Life of Tennessee Williams and The Glass Menagerie   Ã‚  Ã‚   Tennessee Williams is one the major writers of the mid-twentieth century. His work includes the plays, The Glass Menagerie and A Streetcar Named Desire. One theme of The Glass Menagerie is that hopeful aspirations are followed by inevitable disappointments. This theme is common throughout all of Williams work and throughout his own life as well. It is shown through the use of symbols and characters.    I haveRead More Essay on Stagnant Lives in Streetcar Named Desire and Glass Menagerie1196 Words   |  5 PagesStagnant Lives in Streetcar Named Desire and Glass Menagerie   Ã‚  Ã‚   The Stagnant Lives of Blanche DuBois and Amanda Wingfield  Ã‚  Ã‚   All of Williams significant characters are pathetic victims--of time, of their own passions, of immutable circumstance (Gantz 110). This assessment of Tennessee Williams plays proves true when one looks closely at the characters of Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire and Amanda Wingfield in The Glass Menagerie. Their lives run closely parallel to one anotherRead MoreThe Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams1534 Words   |  7 PagesThe Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams Tennessee Williams, born Thomas Lanier Williams, wrote The Glass Menagerie, a play which premiered in Chicago in 1944. This award winning play, autobiographical in nature, represented a time in which Williams felt the obligation of his responsibilities in regards to the care of his family. Robert DiYanni, Adjunct Professor of Humanities at New York University, rated it as, â€Å"One of his best-loved plays...a portrayal of loneliness among characters who confuseRead More Essay on The Glass Menagerie and the Life of Tennessee Williams957 Words   |  4 PagesThe Glass Menagerie and the Life of Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie closely parallels the life of the author. From the very job Tennessee held early in his life to the apartment he and his family lived in. Each of the characters presented, their actions taken and even the setting have been based on the past of Thomas Lanier Williams, better known as Tennessee Williams. Donald Spoto described the new apartment building that Williams and his family relocated to in St. Louis, MissouriRead MoreSimilarities Between The Glass Menagerie And A Dolls House1334 Words   |  6 Pageslife, especially that of ordinary people in everyday situations† (Kennedy 2081). Realism is shown throughout the two following plays. The Glass Menagerie is a play written by Tennessee Williams, and it was published in the year of 1945. The play being compared is A Doll’s House, written by Henrik Ibsen it was published in the year of 1879. In A Glass Menagerie realism is shown through the fact that Tom’s family is struggling with money. Tom can be seen as the protagonist of the story. Similarly,Read MoreEphemeral Repertoire Of Embodied Knowledge943 Words   |  4 Pagesconcurrent with canonization. In each production counter-history—Eddie Dowling’s Menagerie and Elia Kazan’s Streetcar and Cat— Connerton’s theory of incorpora ting practices presents a means of intervening in normative models of production analysis, an especially important task for productions of Tennessee Williams, not all of which adhere to the normative constraints imposed by the limitations of inscribed criticism which emerged in the 1940s, but continue to the present day. Adapting Paul Connerton’sRead More Essay on the Use of Symbols, Tensions, and Irony in The Glass Menagerie891 Words   |  4 PagesUse of Symbols, Tensions, and Irony in The Glass Menagerie      Ã‚  Ã‚   The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee Williams, is a perfect example of how Williams incorporates symbols, tensions, and irony to help express the central theme of the play.      Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the most dominant symbols in the play is the fire escape.   It represents something different for each of the characters.   Tom uses the fire escape to escape from his cramped apartment and nagging mother.   Therefore, the fire escape symbolizesRead MoreEssay about Characters in The Glass Menagerie612 Words   |  3 PagesCharacters in The Glass Menagerie Of the three main characters in Tennessee Williams’s ‘The Glass Menagerie’ Amanda is set to appear as the most dominant and in control. As the mother of the family unit the audience expects her to hold some kind of responsibility over her children as well as providing for them. The idea of the sense of duty she has for Tom and Laura’s future still remains even when the audience discover that the person financially supporting the Wingfields is actually TomRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams1455 Words   |  6 Pagessubmissions for this assignment are posts in the assignment s discussion. Below are the discussion posts for Samantha Stepzinski, or you can view the full discussion. from Discussion #1 - The Glass Menagerie Sep 8, 2017 10:31pm Click to change profile picture for Samantha Stepzinski In The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams, the main topic of discussion is trying to find Laura a suitable gentleman caller that Amanda, her mother, would approve; however the overall theme is much deeper than thatRead MoreThe Truth in Perception:an Exploration of The Glass Menagerie2276 Words   |  10 Pagesdifferentiated by each individual experience. Within The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee Williams, the ideas of overwhelming truth, individual perceptions, and the flaws of humanity are all explored. Through the various characters, with a specific focus on Tom’s narration, Williams argues that the truth is only a subjective idea that is created through the perceptions of humankind, molded through humanity’s flaws. One of the greatest arguments in The Glass Menagerie is the concept that all human beings are imperfect;

Sunday, May 10, 2020

How and Why Did the Nazi Treatment of Jews Change Between...

| How and why did the Nazi treatment of Jews change between the years 1933 and 1945? | Curran De Braganca | How and why did the Nazi treatment of Jews change between the years 1933 and 1945? Most of us have heard of the Nazi party’s horrific, genocidal regime on destroying the Jewish race, but what events led up to their dire judgement? In this study I aim to uncover the events, reasons and changes which led to the Holocaust and the further changes in the treatment of the Jewish race by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party. In the aftermath of the First World War, Germany is under the Judgment of the Allies as a result of Allied victory Germany is being blamed for most of the war, The Treaty of Versailles stated that they: *†¦show more content†¦In other words it was claimed that the Jews had caused Germanys defeat in World War 1. Potentially, this made anti-Semitism explosive in Germany. * People were Jealous. Some Jews were successful and held powerful positions in Austria and Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. Germany was hit the hardest by the worldwide economic depression which started in 1929, and successful Jews were envied. * In a large amount of Europe, Jews were thought to have Communist ideology. It is extremely evident that Jews were the main target for dire judgmental opinions, but there was one man who had a passion for Germany; he believed he was the ‘saviour’ of Germany, this man served in the first world war, and it was then, near the end of the war, recovering from a war wound, when Germany was weak and crumbling, he made a vow to himself, that he would be the one, to make Germany strong, he was: Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler shared the same hatred towards the Jewish race as many Germans, he believed that they were the reason to Germany’s defeat in the First World War; there was nothing unique about his hatred, but the way he conveyed his message was extremely unique. After thirteen years of hard work and campaigning, On January 30th 1933, Adolf Hitler becomes theShow MoreRelatedThe Holocaust Was An Extremely Traumatic Event1690 Words   |  7 Pagestraumatic event that opened the eyes of many people about how brutal and malicious people can truly be. There is no single answer as to why this event occurred, there are many complex and inter-related causes for the Holocaust including; the economy of Germany, the ideology of the Nazis, Hitler’s personal racism, and outright fear. Now the Holocaust was the period from January 30, 1933 - when Adolf Hitler became the chancellor of Germany - to May 8, 1945, when the war in Europe finally ended. The HolocaustRead MoreWhat Was It Like To Live In The Time During The Holocaust?1247 Words   |  5 Pagesthe time during the holocaust? What made the holocaust so revolutionary? Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler had a masterplan to eliminate the jews in Germany, the Nazis became powerful in a way that they saw the Jews as inferior. Through 1933 till 1945, roughly more than 11 million people were murdered. During the holocaust 1/3 of all Jewish people alive were persecuted. They created transit, concentration camps to monitor the Jews during the war. The concentration camps took away the rights of the victimsRead MoreThe Holocaust During World War II1503 Words   |  7 Pageswas an event that took place from 1933 to 1945 in Germany. During this time, Adolf Hitler was in charge, resulting in the prejudice actions that are well written in history. Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee, but found few countries wanting to take them in. Eventually, under Hitler’s leadership, some 6 million Jews were murdered during World War II. In this time period the Nazi’s waged a war against the Jews and other races that they consideredRead MoreAdolf Hitler And The Holocaust2262 Words   |  10 PagesWhen Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933, he had a belief that race was the sole matter that defined the culture of a civilization. He influenced the country of Germany to change the ideological values that they previously abided by. This change marked the beginning of a new era, which led to the most pure ideological genocide that can be remembered to this day since there was no pragmatic motivation throughout the time period the Holocaust took place. It is a dark mark in the history of westernRead MoreEssay about The Holocaust4385 Words   |  18 PagesThe Holocaust All throughout history, Jews have been persecuted. The Jews were blamed for killing Jesus and the idea of anti- Semitism has been around centuries before Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. Adolf Hitler led the Nazis to power in 1933 promising to make Germany powerful and respected by the rest of the world. He promised to fight Communism, to find jobs for the six million unemployed workers in Germany, to Read MoreA Paradox Of Innocence : An Essay3669 Words   |  15 Pagescase right next-door. As a nine-year-old boy, Bruno has no idea that his father was running a mass concentration camp right next door to his house and exterminating Jews including his new friend Shmuel. Instead, Bruno acquired an irreproachable friendship due to his innocent way of thinking that allowed for him to ignore society’s prejudices against his Jewish friend Shmuel. This essay will provide information regarding the Holocaust and hash treatment of the Jews within the German concentrationRead MoreThe Holocaust : The Most Tragic Events Of History2183 Words   |  9 Pagesof the medical experiments are able to prove that it did. On January 19 ,1933 The Nazi’s invaded Germany. When dictator Adolf Hitler came to power he took many innocent lives by discriminating against the Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah s witness, Polish, socialist, Russ ians, and homosexuals. During the World War II, numerous German Doctors conducted inhumane and painful experiments on thousands of concentration camp prisoners without consent. The Nazi Party began human experiments exploring limitationsRead MoreHuman Rights Should Be Universal2463 Words   |  10 PagesFor example, Nazi Germany was doing some very unpleasing and terrible things to Europe in the 1930s and 40s during World War II. Because Germany was acting in such a way the United States stepped in and help resolve the issue. I will discuss some of the central themes of human rights discussed in class by demonstrating how the Nazi Party rose to power and mistreated individuals. The cruel actions that happened under the Third Reich were infringements on human rights and it changed how we handle themRead MoreMain Aspects of the Holocaust Essay8177 Words   |  33 PagesKristallnacht for the Nazi rise). I did this as I think the Holocaust has to be looked upon on a more personal and individual level to see how bad it was and you cant really do this by simply over viewing a certain topic. I have chosen to cover the main bog standard areas like camps, Ghettos etc. Because, although it is slightly unoriginal, I knew little about them and wanted to find something out. Also, I dont think people appreciate just how bad some aspects (likeRead MoreLife History of Adolf Hitler3980 Words   |  16 Pagesleaders ever to walk the Earth. It is hard to believe by most how such a cruel and oddly looking man became the leader of a very powerful country. Hitlers rise to power was not through that of brute force (except for his first try through the Beer Hall Putsch), but rather through his ideas of a better, superior Germany. In this paper I want to examine Hitlers childhood and life in the army during WW I, how it shaped his thoughts on Jews, and his tedious rise to Fur her in Germany. I also want

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Business Law. TUTORIAL 2 1 Ali and Abu Free Essays

TUTORIAL 2 1. Ali and Abu were neighbours. Ali had to go to Singapore for a business seminar. We will write a custom essay sample on Business Law. TUTORIAL 2 1: Ali and Abu or any similar topic only for you Order Now Before he left, he told Abu â€Å"Please look after my house†. After two weeks of being away, Ali’s house caught fire and Abu could only save a briefcase containing RM30,000. When Ali returned home, he thanked Abu for saving his briefcase and promised he would pay Abu RM2,000 for what he had done. Later, Ali refused to pay what he had promised. Advise Abu. Referring to section 2(d) of Contracts Act1950, the use of the words â€Å" has done or abstained from doing† imply that even if the act was prior to the promise, such an act would constitute consideration so long as it is done at the desire of the promise. Therefore, referring to the situation of Ali, he is bound to fulfil his promise to Abu as in Malaysia, past consideration is good consideration. This principle was established in the case of Kepong Prospecting Ltd v. Schmidt. In 1953 Tan applied to the Government of the State of Johore for a prospecting permit for iron ore. He was assisted in the negotiations by Schmidt, a consulting engineer. A prospecting permit was granted to Tan in November 1953, and in December 1953 Tan wrote to Schmidt stating that Schmidt was to be paid 1 percent of the selling price of all ore that might be sold from any portionof the said land and this was in payment for the work Schmidt had done assisting to obtain the prospecting permit and for any work that Schmidt might doing in assisting to have mining operations started up. Tan then executed a power of attorney in favour of Schmidt which conferred upon Schmidt widely expressed powers to contract for the disposal of any of Tan’s mining properties on such consideration and subject to such conditions as Schmidt thought proper. In September 1955, an agreement was made between the company and Schmidt. Under Clause 1 of the agreement the company inter alia agreed to pay Schmidt 1 percent of all ore that might be won from any land comprised in the 1954 agreement in ‘ consideration of the services by the consulting engineer for and on behalf of the company prior to its formation, after incorporation and for future services’. Dispute arose between those originally interested in the company and the persons who were subsequently interested. Schmidt commenced the present proceedings in July 1959 claiming inter alia an account of all monies payable to him under the 1955 agreement. The court held this case with Clause 1 of the 1955 agreement established that a legally sufficient consideration had moved from Schmidt. Services prior to the company’s formation could not amount to consideration as they could not be rendered to an non-existent company, nor could the company bind itself to pay for the services claimed to have been rendered before its incorporation. But the inclusion of that ineffective element did not prevent the other two elements. 2. Abby promise to Ben RM2,000 when Ken paints Abby’s house. As soon as Ken completed painting Abby’s house, Ben claims the amount from Abby. Abby refuse to pay Ben as she argued that Ben did not paint her house as she had instructed. Decide. In this case, under the Contracts Act 1950 a party to an agreement can enforce the promise even if he himself has given no consideration as long as somebody has done so [ Section 2(d) of Contracts Act 1950]. Hence, section2(d) of Contracts Act 1950 provides that Abby is liable to pay to Ben because there was good consideration for the promise even though it did not move from Ben. This can be illustrated in the case of VenkataChinnaya v VerikataraMa’ya. A sister agreed to pay an annuity of Rs653 to her brothers who providedno consideration for the promise but on the same day their mother had given the sister some land, stipulating that she must pay the annuity to her brothers. The sister subsequently failed to pay the annuity and was sued by her brothers. The court held that the sister was liable to pay the annuity. There was good consideration for the promise even though it did not move from her brothers. 3. What is the general rule of consideration? In the section 26 of the Contract Act 1950 provides that, as a general rule, an agreement without consideration is void. In Guthrie Waugh Bhd v MalaippanMuthucumaru[1972] 1 MLJ 35 the High Court held that there was no cause of action in the statement of claim as the claim was based on a deed of arrangement for which there was no consideration. The Court held that the deed was executed by the defendant neither for any past consideration, nor in respect of any forbearance to sue him for the supplies made to the estates, nor in consideration of any promise to supply him goods on credit in future. The deed was made without consideration and all that the defendant could be said to have undertaken was a moral obligation. 4. Is there any exception available to the general rule of consideration? According to section 26 of the Contracts Act 1950, an agreement made without consideration is void, unless- (a) It is in writing and registered It is expressed I writing and registered under the law (if any) for the time being in force for the registration of such documents, and is made on account of natural love and affection between parties standing in a near relation to each other; (b) Is a promise to compensate for something done It is a promise to compensate, wholly or in part, a person who has already voluntarily done something for the promisor, or something which the promisor was legally compellable to do; or (c) Is a promise to pay a debit barred by limitation law It is a promise, made in writing and signed by the person to be charged therewith, or by his agent generally or specially authorized in that behalf, to pay wholly or in part a debt of which the creditor might have enforced payment but for the law for the limitation of suits. . What is meant by adequacy of consideration? Although the consideration must be adequate in order to make a contract enforceable, adequacy does not mean that the contract price exactly matches, or exceeds, the fair market value of the property. Adequacy of the consideration is measured as of the parties’ entry into the contract, not at the time for performance or at the time of trial. To measure the adequacy of the consideration at any other time would deprive the bu yer of the benefit of his bargain. In the case ofPhangSwee Kim v Beh I Hock (1964) MLJ 383 stated that in 1994 in consideration of RM20,000 in Japanese currency, the respondent executed a memorandum of transfer of his half-share of the land in question to the appellant’s husband, now deceased. The transfer was not registered but the deceased obtained possession of the land and in 1946, he died intestate. The appellant, the widow of the deceased, extracted grant of letters of administration in 1951 and continued to be in possession of the land. Sometime in 1963, the land was subdivided into two lots and the respondent became the sole proprietor of the lot occupied by the appellant. Subsequently on 21 January 1963, the respondent’s solicitor notified the appellant that she had trespassed on the said land and asked for vacant possession and also for an account of all income received by her from the land. In May 1963, the respondent instituted an action against her claiming the relief stated. The appellant counter-claimed for a declaration that she was entitled to the said land. At the hearing in the court below, the appellant contended that the basis of her claim was an oral agreement made between her and the respondent in 1958. The learned trial judge accepted her evidence, but held that the agreement was void due to inadequacy of consideration. The appellant appealed and the respondent cross-appealed. The Court held that there was adequate consideration in this case (there being no evidence of fraud or duress) because the respondent agreed to transfer the land to the appellant on payment of $500 when the land was subdivided. The appellant was therefore entitled to the declaration sought by her. How to cite Business Law. TUTORIAL 2 1: Ali and Abu, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Lab Report Daphnia Essay Example

Lab Report Daphnia Paper When the animal is warmer, the heart rate will raise as long as the temperature isnt sufficiently high to harm the animal. (Campbell, 2005) Alcohol is a depressant. This means that body systems will slow down when alcohol is introduced. In particular, the heart rate will get consistently lower. If too much alcohol is added, it will result in the death of the animal. The alcohol acts by inhibiting the nervous system. (Leave, 2003) After an intoxicating exposure to alcohol, an organisms system will be impaired for an extended period of time. Caffeine is a stimulant. It will work by causing the nervous system to work faster. Also, it will cause the blood vessels to constrict. (Leave, 2003) These effects will work together to increase an animals heart rate. Under normal circumstances, the heart rate will increase as more caffeine is added. At some point the high concentration of caffeine will cause the heart to stop functioning. The effect of one outside substance can impair the effects of other substances. In this experiment we will intoxicate an organism. As a result, the nervous system will have difficulty responding when we introduce a stimulant. The caffeine will have no effect on the organism, because it will be insufficient to overcome the effects of the alcohol exposure. Background Daphnia magna is a freshwater exothermic crustacean commonly referred to as a water flea. Its body is transparent. Because of its transparency we can observe the effects of substances on its body without surgical procedures. We can observe the heart of the Daphnia to be dorsal to the backbone, just behind the head. Helms, 1998) The average Daphnia has a heart rate of about 180 beats per minute under normal conditions. We will observe the effects of temperature fluctuations, alcohol, and caffeine on this exothermic animal. Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: The hypothesis is that lowering the temperature of the surroundings of the exothermic Daphnia magna will cause its heart rate to lower, and raising the temperature will increase heart rate. Hypothesis 2: The hypothesis is that the heart rate of Daphnia magna will decrease as higher concentrations of alcohol solution are introduced to the system. We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Daphnia specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Daphnia specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Daphnia specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hypothesis 3: The hypothesis is that the heart rate of Daphnia magna will increase as higher concentrations of caffeine solution are introduced to the system. Materials and Methods For the sake of time, the experiment was split into two parts and each part was performed by a different team. One team worked on the effects of temperature hanged on heart rate. The other team worked on the effects of Alcohol and Caffeine on the heart rate. Both teams obtained a plastic pipette and cut off the tip at the first graduation from the bottom to allow Daphnia magna to fit into the pipette. The teams each obtained a depression slide and smeared a small amount of petroleum jelly on one of the wells. Any excess petroleum jelly was wiped off so that there was only one layer on the well. Then each team used their pipette to draw a Daphnia magna from the jar and placed it on the petroleum jelly covered well. A Simple was used to draw off excess fluid from the slide. Then one drop of solution was placed on the Daphnia magna to prevent it from drying out. Each slide was placed on a dissection microscope and the heart was located using the Helms manual and help from the lab instructor. Then one minute was given for the Daphnia magna to calm down. The following was the procedure used by the temperature team. After the Daphnia was given time to calm down, the team took a reading of its heart rate at room temperature (27 degrees C). The reading was taken by counting the heart beats for ten seconds and then multiplying by six to yield beats per minute. Next, a glass Petri dish was filled with ice water at five degrees Celsius. The cold water Petri dish was placed on the stage of the microscope, and the Daphnia was placed on top of the dish. When the Daphnia had been given a minute to acclimate to the changes, another heart rate reading was taken. Then the same procedure using the Petri dish to changed environmental conditions was used with cold tap water (23 degrees), warm tap water (30 degrees), and hot tap water (45 degrees). A heart rate reading was taken for each temperature. The following was the procedure used by the team that introduced chemicals onto the environment of the Daphnia. First a zero reading was taken before any chemicals were introduced. The zero reading was an observation of the Daphnia heart rate before any substances were administered. All fluids were drawn off the slide using the corner of a Simple. Then two drops of two percent alcohol solution were dropped onto the Daphnia. After a minute a heart rate reading was taken. The same procedure, including using the Simple to draw off previous solution, was then used with four, six, eight, and ten percent solutions. A heart rate reading was taken after each solution was introduced. After the last alcohol solution a Simple was used to draw off all of the solution and a drop of Daphnia culture fluid was added. After a minute another zero reading was taken. The team then used the same procedure used with alcohol to introduce caffeine solution of the same concentrations. Heart rate readings were taken after each solution. Results Table #1: Effect of Temperature Variations on Heart Rate of Daphnia magna I Temperature (C) Room Temp. 1146 1 130 degrees 10 (dead) I Heart rate (beats/minute) 224 1 123 degrees 1214 1 15 degrees 1 145 degrees As the environment got further away from room temperature the effects were ore pronounced. The heart rate got increasingly lower as Daphnia was placed in colder environments. The heart rate was 224 BPML at room temperature, then 182 at 23 degrees, and then 146 at 5 degrees. When the temperature was considerably higher than room temperature the Daphnia could not handle the extreme, and it died. Death occurred at 45 degrees. (Table 1) Table #2: Effect of Alcohol Solutions on Heart Rate of Daphnia magna I Concentration of Solution 1126 42 10% 157 118 184 130 As higher concentrations of alcohol were introduced, the heart rate of Daphnia lowered on a steady trend. Heart rate was 84 BPML with 2% alcohol, 57 BPML with 4% alcohol, and 42 BPML at 6% alcohol. It can also be observed that the resting heart rate of this Daphnia was considerable lower than that of the Daphnia used in the temperature experiments. (Table 2) Table #3: Effect of Caffeine Solution on Heart Rate of Daphnia magna I 16 4% 6 I O (dead) The zero heart rate was lower than the heart rate at the highest level of alcohol concentration. As higher concentrations of caffeine solution were introduced, there was no effect on this Daphnia. When a ten percent solution was added the heart stopped. (Table 3) Discussion Table 1 showed the trend of Daphnia magmas heart rate lowering as temperatures were lowered. Based on this data it can be reasoned that Daphnia heart rate will lower anytime it is introduced to a colder environment. At some point Daphnia would freeze and die, but barring that point the heart rate would get lower and lower with colder temperatures. Along the same line of thinking, increasing environmental temperatures would increase Daphnia heart rate until the temperature is too high for survival. This data did not completely support the hypothesis because there was no provision for the possibility of death in the hypothesis. Fifth data had supported the hypothesis the Daphnia would have had a higher heart rate at 45 degrees rather than dying. Table 2 showed the effects of alcohol on Daphnia heart rate. The higher the concentration of alcohol, the lower Daphnia heart rate got. It can be assumed that this trend would continue until the Daphnia died. This data supported the hypothesis. Table 3 showed the effects of caffeine on Daphnia. This table showed no trend. As a result of the lack of a trend, this data did not support the hypothesis. This can be explained several ways. First, it could have been experimental error. The solution team could have forgotten to use a Simple to remove an alcohol solution from the Daphnia. There also could have been errors in the way Daphnia was handled. Another possible explanation was that the Daphnia was too weak from the beginning. The Daphnia in the temperature experiments had a considerably higher heart rate than that of the Daphnia used in the solution experiments. This could show that the solution Daphnia was weak at the onset of the experiment. As a result the alcohol exposure was unrecoverable for that Daphnia. The exothermic qualities of Daphnia explained the effects of temperature on he animal. Campbell, 2005) Daphnia was more tolerant to lower temperatures than to higher temperatures. This was expected since Daphnia usually lives in cold water. (Leave, Bibb) The alcohol affected Daphnia as expected. (Leave, 2003) When the caffeine was introduced to the system, there was no change. This was not what we expected based on knowledge of how stimulants affect a nimals. (Leave, 2003) This can be explained by the excessive nervous system inhibition caused by the alcohol. This experiment can be used to show the practical application of chemicals and temperatures in regulating body function.