Monday, February 17, 2020
University of Queensland Admissions - Essay Example In addition, as a third year student undertaking the real estate option, this is the opportune time for me to go on an exchange program to UQ because of the unique real estate classes like REDE3202 being offered that attracts considerable international investments. Furthermore, I will have the opportunity to learn and experience the upward swing of the current real estate curve in Australia. The benefits of taking the real estate and business classes abroad would be significant in the fact that I would be able to learn them in an English speaking global perspective, which is where I plan to utilize my real estate degree in the future. In addition to the business offerings, I can fulfill my required elective credits through the various unique and interesting UQ course offerings such as the marine biology of Australia. Overall, the University of Queensland offers the best academic environment and is the perfect fit to keep my academic progress in line. Professionally, University of Que ensland and Australia, in general, holds major opportunity for me to pursue international business connections and develop myself as a business executive. This is because I plan to immerse myself as much as possible into the business world to meet new people and develop connections, but most importantly to gain experience in an international business culture. I believe this global perspective will greatly enhance how I view and manage business and what I can apply back in my home country Canada.
Monday, February 3, 2020
Describe a person or event that has had a profound impact on you and the way you look at the world - Essay Example The simultaneous attacks were the adversaries' ploy to exhibit their competence boldly defying American sovereignty. Sandwiched between these warring nations are innocent lives that are needlessly lost. It was indeed a distressing incident that will forever be etched in the history of mankind. I am deeply moved by the sudden turn of events. The fateful event significantly changed my outlook in life. It's not just the United States of America that was involved in that tragic incident. I awakened to the stark realization that we are presently living in a very harsh world and that we cannot afford to be indifferent. As a youth and international student, I became aware of the responsibilities ahead of me. I know very well that our generation is next in line in molding and shaping a better world. Amidst the incessant controversies, it is very crucial to observe and learn from the things that had ensued. Although disastrous and heartrending, the 9/11 disaster brought forth present-day heroes. I admire the common people who have risked their lives in order to save others. I am in awe of the courageous men and women who chose to lose their lives for the benefit of many.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Analysing The Organisational Structure Of Syngenta 1-it has adopted a culture of innovation and progression along with the changes in needs of customers 2-it has not selected a conventional hierarchical structure that could be quite in appropriate for the company based on research 3-it has focused on authorizing the employees to use their power within specified limits so he could get the ownership of his task 4-it has adopted matrix structure that could be the best way to bring out the maximum potential from the work force as people from diversified fields sit together to perform a specific task and thus synergized efforts results in a way better outcome 5-it has fostered the employees to strengthen their skills and capabilities by not only specializing them in their specified fields but also make them educated about situation handling, time management, leader ship skills ,task motivation etc 6-they adopted a concept of teams rather than group as positive synergy of team leads to maximum performance in which every member makes use of not only his own competency but also other s expertise and skills ,this coordinated effort leads to comparatively better results than groups Disadvantages 1-its functional areas mostly work in collaboration with each other but it also works effectively as independent department .there is a need to specify situations in which each department has to perform its work independently or dependently in order to avoid misconception 2-as per few of team leaders their role is an intermediary between higher management and lower staff ,such statement could make confusion so there should be a specific style of leadership that their tam leaders should adopt so they teams performance could be enhanced 3-most of the scientist in Syngenta are not given specific research departments to use their expertise but they are rotated in different departments such as marketing that is totally new for them, they may move around different places for other tasks that could affect their specialized skill for which they are hired 4-in Syngenta the concept of innovation is a bit mixed up with the concept of openness to experience. It focuses on enabling employees to be open to experience different things to increase their innovative sills that may not be a necessary step to enhance creativity ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF PG Advantages 1-it focuses on thinking globally as it is spread across the globe so for each of its products it has to consider the global aspect primarily along with focusing the local customers interest according to their regions 2-its multidivisional structure enabled the organization to create the equity of brands distributed in its five business units worldwide and emphasizing on acting locally according to different regions 3-it has specified seven market development organizations which aim to develop new markets for the product line of company 3-global business services group is responsible for characterizing and then transferring information into a meaningful form throughout the worlds in every country where the company is running its business 4-corporate functions group aims to assist global business unit and market development organization to give their best practices; it also helps making external relations, human resource management and I.T management 5-it has strong focus on external environment to identify new opportunities by taking information from customers and suppliers 6-it supports creativity and seeking diversification of ideas to differentiate their products 7-low formalization and procedures in this structure provide comfortable environment for employees 8-low specialization causes the employees to be generalized about the tasks assigned to them in a certain job description 9-decntrailzation of decision making and authority enables the employees to interact frequently and exchange ideas about how to further differentiate the product Disadvantages it currently uses cooperative form multidivisional structure to strengthen its production strength in which different division work in cooperation to share their competencies but they should also focus on other strengths like marketing ,RD ,distribution to make use of cooperative form . 1-it currently focuses on product divisions for long term growth there is a need to emphasize on market divisions as well 3- It has modified the specific cooperative form of multidivisional structure according to its unique strategy 4-the success of cooperative multidivisional structure is influenced by how well the information is shared and processed by various departments so it may cause the loss of managerial autonomy and authority so, it may affect the integrated information processing activity that is demanded by this structure 5-it could also affect the individual performance of division as the reward system in the cooperative form structure is based upon the overall perfomance4 of company besides outcomes and efforts made by individual departments so it could be a bit discouraging for the high performance departments as they are being rewarded equally as others APPROPRIATE CULTURES FOR SYNGENTA AND PROCTER GAMBLE The appropriate culture for Syngenta should be such that it not only emphasize on team building but also it should focus on leadership skills as there is an environment of diversification with innovation so all the employees should not only be given multi skilled teams but they should also be given a chance to work in their specialized teams. Teams should be made after discussing with work force so every member could be comfortable with each other. There should be a management by objectives in which employees and mangers set their goals with mutual agreement so every employee should be committed with his goal and this owner ship may result in achievement of tasks in a better way. Open door policy should be adopted in which lower level staff is free to interact with senior management via open discussion sessions. This uninterrupted communication will lead to enhancement of trust and loyalty among the employees. Team leaders should specifically be trained to enhance their leadership sk ills according to specific style of leadership relevant to their personality. There is a need to arrange employee activity programs on regular bass to enhance the relationship between employees and creating a friendly and helpful culture .these steps are important for the maximum utilization of its human resources. In Procter and gamble there is a need of clear and simple communication from the top management to lower staff so every employee could easily understand the continuous innovation and modification in products .currently there is a strong focus to gather information from external environment like customers and supplier so internal sources of information from employees should also be considered important .decentralization should be implemented to a certain limit as there may be certain thing for which decision making by middle or lower management may be harmful so there should be a centralized approach in few cases. There is need of formalized procedure and standard operating program to run the operation in an organized manner. Specialization of tasks should also be taken as important factor to bring the maximum potential out of employee, as lack of specialization and generalized activities under a certain job description may cause confusion in employee. There is a need to utilize the e mployee skills according to his expertise for which he is specialized whereas diversified tasks should be assigned alongside. There should be a culture of specialization as innovation doesnt only come up with diversification but specialization and research in a certain field may lead to creation of a new product. EFFECT OF STRUCTURE AND CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONS SUCCESS It is the most important factor for the success of an organization as it arranges the employees, management and workforce in a chain of commands. There is always a need for a formalized structure of positions and ranks in which the whole organization is arranged. The culture of a company is vital for its employees growth and survival. Most of the employees dont find convenient to work in strict and centralized management structure. Currently the multiple layers f hierarchy has been reduced to one or two layer in which the communication between upper and lower staff has been made relatively simple and easy. There is no need to get approval due to delegation by senior management to lower staff .It is an attempt to build trust and confidence in the employees. Culture plays a vital role in performance of employees Multidivisional structure is a good example of organizational structure in which every department works in collaboration with each other and thus creating the best value for cu stomers. Total quality management approach is also an attempt to produce quality by each and every member of organization for the satisfaction of customers. Structure is important as it helps the employees to view the clear picture of how they can approach the highest position and how they can interact and share ideas with them. Culture of organization should always be friendly and trustful as it helps employees feel as if they are at home. By establishing a positive and helpful culture we can achieve the organizational objectives not only better but also higher than expected through maximum utilization of employees potential, because happy employee leads to enhanced performance. FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR AT WORK Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are, culture, ethnic group, time, gender, etc. company favor people that go to superior socio economic setting, well cultured, youthful etc as they are supposed to be performing superior than the others. In Syngenta the youthful and active professionals that have first-rate educational background and efficient communication ability are always required, the analysis of demographic feature is important as it help out managers to choose the appropriate applicant 2. Aptitude and expertise: The physical ability of a person to do anything can be called as aptitude. Expertise can be termed as the skill to act in a way that permits a person to do better. The person performance and presentation is extremely inclined by aptitude and expertise. An individual can do well in Syngenta if his aptitude and expertise are coordinated with the job necessity. The managers should compare the aptitude and expertise of the workers with the job necessity. 3. Perception: The process intended for inferring the signals of environment in a significant manner is termed as perception. Every person on according to his mental capacity can systematize and understand environmental signals. There are many aspects that manipulate the perception of a person. The examination of perception is extremely important for the managers at Syngenta, It is vital for them to generate the positive work setting so that workers recognize them in most constructive manner. The workers are probable to do well again if they perceive it in an optimistic manner. 4. Approach: approach can be defined as a propensity to react constructively or critically to specific individual, situation and object. The factors such as relatives, culture, background, and association influence the development of approach. The managers in Syngenta must learn the factors associated with work as to generate the job setting in a positive manner that workers are convinced to create an optimistic approach towards the individual job. The workers can do better if they their approach is positive. 5. Personality: Personality can be termed as the examination of qualities and attributes on an individual and the relation between those characteristics and how he responds to certain situations. The numerous issues that affect the personality of a person are genetics, relatives, civilization, society and circumstances. It involves the truth that persons vary in their style while reacting to the environment of organization. It helps the individuals to appropriately guiding their hardships and encouraging them for the achievement of the objectives of company .in Syngenta it needs to be considered that dissimilar environment may create different reaction, so the study of these reactions is very important. Syngenta requires a specific kind of behavior from their employees like creativity and innovation in job, need acknowledgement for achievements, passion to achieve etc .and such behaviors can be revealed during inspection, education, experience, guidance, etc HENRI FAYOLS FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT AT SYNGENTA The Five Functions are: 1. PLANNING At Syngenta there is a need to draw up strategy of activities along with agreement, stability, elasticity and accuracy considering the companys assets, kind and importance of effort and potential. Constructing a strategy is the most complicated of the five functions and needs the vigorous contribution of the whole association. Planning must be synchronized on diverse stages and with different periods of time. 2. ORGANISING At syngenta it is required to organize the resources, employees and supplies for the operation of the company, and outline a structure to go with the work. Organizational composition relies wholly on the number of workers. An enhancement in the number of functional activities increases the associations human resource needs and supports added levels of management; 3. COMMANDING At Syngenta it should maximize return from all workers in the benefit of the whole company. Booming managers have private truthfulness, converse without a doubt and support their decision on normal review. Their systematic knowledge of workers generates harmony, vigor, innovation and devotion and remove lack of ability. 4. COORDINATING At Syngenta there is a need to merge and synchronize actions and hard work to continue the stability between the actions of the association as in production to marketing and finance to marketing. Fayol has suggested weekly meeting for department leaders to solve issues s of general concern; 5. CONTROLLING At Syngenta it is required to categorize flaws and discrepancies by regular feedback, and coordinating actions with strategy, guidelines and commands. Fayols management functions let authority functions to operate professionally and efficiently through coordination and controlling techniques. At Syngenta, there is a need of relationship officers and a common group. MANAGEMENT APPROACH AT SYNGENTA HUMAN BEHAVIOUR APPROACH It takes Organization as community, it consist of two parts: a) Interpersonal Behavior Approach it involves the Psychology of individual employees b) Group Behavior Approach it involves the behavior of a group of individuals Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Features -it makes use mainly from human psychology and sociology. -it focuses on understanding individual relationships. -it gives importance to motivation that leads to high productivity Leadership, participative management, good human relationships and group dynamics are the major areas of this approach -it explains how management can be effective by making use of knowledge regarding behavior of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Limitations It treats management quite similar to human behavior It highlights the organization and organizational behavior in an indistinct manner. MANAGEMENT APPROACH AT PROCTER AND GAMBLE SOCIAL SYSTEM APPROACH Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢it mainly focuses on understanding the behavior of individuals and groups. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Features 1. Social System is an organization of cultural associations 2. The association exists between exterior and interior atmosphere of the company. 3. Formal association is a relationship of social groups working within an organization based on culture. 4. The collaboration between different departments is necessary 5. There is synchronization between the goals of organization and goals of groups. Decisions of organization are based upon the interest of every individual rather than for a single group of individuals Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Limitations It does not completely cover the practice of management -it neglects numerous management approaches and methods that are essential to involved managers. LIKERTS LEADERSHIP STYLES EXPLOITIVE AUTHORITATIVE In this style, the leader has a small worry for citizens and utilizes such technique as bullying and other terrifying technique to get acceptance. Communication is approximately downwards and the expressively isolated issues of citizens are overlooked. BENEVOLENT AUTHORITATIVE When the leader adds worry for public to a commanding place, a benevolent dictatorship is shaped. The leader now utilizes rewards to motivate suitable actions and take notice more to issues of lower staff, although what they pay attention to is often limited to what their inferior staff believes that the manager wants to listen. There may be a small allocation of authority to inferiors but still decisions are made in a centralized way CONSULTATIVE The upward surge of information here is still vigilant to some extent, though the manager is making authentic efforts to pay attention carefully to new ideas but major decision are still made via centralized system PARTICIPATIVE The manager makes utmost use of participative technique, involving lower level staff of organization in making decisions. People across the organization are emotionally close to each other and perform well at different levels .they are given chance to participate in exchanging ideas and information regarding decision making for the organization In Syngenta participative style of leadership is used in which employees from diversified department are given equal opportunity to share their views and inputs in various functional and operational levels. They are given opportunity to participate along with team leaders in resolving different issues of team and making improvements and innovation in the products and value for the customers MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES ALDERFERS ERG THEORY It is divided into three types of needs Existence needs are requirements for physiological and material comfort. Relatedness needs are requirements for fulfilling interpersonal associations Growth needs are requirements for sustained mental augmentation and progress. This approach is practiced by mangers of Kellogg which is a well known name in health foods it suggests that dissatisfied desires motivate behavior and when lower level needs are satisfied they get less important. He probably goes for higher level needs but if could not be achieved then he gets dissatisfied again and goes down to lower level needs which is termed as frustration regression. Which shows that already satisfied lower level needs may get reactivated and influence individuals behavior if his higher level need is not met .so managers normally give chance for personnel to emphasize on the significance of higher level desires. HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY Frederick Herzberg offers structure to understand the motivational aspect of job setting. In his two-factor theory, Herzberg spotted out two kinds of factors that influence motivation in the office: Hygiene factors include salary, job protection, work setting, managerial rules, and practical excellence of management. Though these aspects do not encourage workers, they can create discontent if they are missing. Advancement in hygiene factors does not essentially enhance satisfaction. Satisfiers or motivators includes dependability, accomplishment, development chances, and feelings of acknowledgment, and plays a vital role in job satisfaction and motivation. For instance, managers can get to know what people actually perform in their work and make augmentation, thus enhancing their job satisfaction and performance. its being practiced in NESTLE(UK) in which mangers practice this useful theory of motivation to motivate the staff and subordinates in order to enhance their job satisfaction .using Herzbergs two-factor theory, managers make sure that hygiene factors are sufficient and then put up satisfiers into jobs. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEAMS AND GROUPS CHARACTERISTICS OF A TEAM Team has Shared Leadership roles. It discusses, decides, and does real work together. There is a specific purpose of tem which it delivers accountability is mutually by the whole team and individual as well .Efforts are always made collective and performance is also measured in collective form. It always welcomes open ended discussion and active participation in problem solving .in Syngenta there is trend of teams rather than groups which is a positive approach in making innovation and advancement by making multi talented teams in the organization having members from different specialized fields. CHARACTERISTICS OF A WORK GROUP It has Strong, clearly focused solo leader who discusses, decides and delegates power to members. The objective of group is similar to that of organization .accountability is entirely individual .Efforts are made and performance is measured on individual basis. Meetings are normally run to share information. There is problem with group that it does not exactly determine what the organization requires from them. They cant even analyze the exact potential as group. They are not capable to design any strategy specifically for the group. It is normally seen in pharmaceutical companies like GSK where sales teams are made but they are actually groups in which every person is responsible for his own territory and assigned a specific sales target .all he does is to achieve the target and he doesnt need to bother about other members. Sales meeting is normally done to review the sales figures and future planning. SPECIFIC ELEMENTS OF TEAMS AT SYNGENTA At Syngenta there is a concept of innovation widely accepted and for that purpose projects teams are designed in which individuals from different departments are taken into team having own specialty and expertise regarding the project which is lead by trained team leader who normally adopts participative leadership style as every member is expert in his own field so he has given equal chance to participate in project accomplishment that is how every member of tem gets benefit from each other .the major issue with these is that they are short lived means they normally gets dissolved after a short period of time when the task gets accomplished and members are shifted to another project in that way they are unable to develop interpersonal relation with other members of teams .here it feels that main task of the team is not to make a synergized work force but to achieve the objective of company .These project teams are effectively working over major business strategies so there is a need to develop intra team liaison and emphasize on strengthening them as they are vital for making a successful teams .Although communication is better within the team but it is not up to the mark to develop understanding between team members .its functional areas can be improved to a great extent by focusing on team building as its members a competent enough to make effort as a team member as per their expertise. Leadership is also effective here as members have complete trust on their leaders that he understands their issue and resolves them quickly .the reason is that leaders are well trained and supportive to get the maximum potential of members so it should always be focused because a change in leadership style may cause inter team conflicts and resistance by members for leader. EFFECT OF INCREASED USE OF TECHNOLOGY ON TEAM PERFORMANCE improvement in networking and telecommunications have show the way to the propagation of virtual teams that do not work face-to-face but communicate over a computer based medium of communication .its members work together as interdependent group members on a common task while they are far away from each other at distant places .so the only way to interact and share ideas is computer mediated communication network and computer supported cooperative work. in Procter and gamble it has affected the team performance as virtual teams are not as effective as real teams because there is a lack of physical interactions and there is less chance of understanding each other as a team because every member is isolated from each other. Each member takes his task as the only responsibility to fulfill rather than team performance. There is lack of synergy in such teams and accountability is also individual. Even performance evaluation and efforts are also individual based rather than collective. So i t overall affects the performance of team because every member thinks about his own performance regardless of what team is performing and how well the task is accomplished by the team due to lack physical interaction and passion as a team.
Friday, January 17, 2020
The weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation were pointed out by the Constitution. The Articles of Confederation were tweaked in May 1786. This introduced a set of fresh regulations for the central government. Thedeclaration of Independence was approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. The Constitution paid attention to the irregularities in the Declaration of Independence and replaced all direct mentions of slavery. The Great Compromise drew an end to the disagreements among the states and set congressional representation upon population on an equal basis. The Bill of Rights was introduced by James Madison to the first United States Congress on August 21 1789 and was used by the House of Representatives. John Dickinson proposed an outline to the Articles of Confederation in 1776. The first establishment of a formal government in the colonies was introduced in this. The Articles of Confederation was accepted by thirteen states on March 1 1781. The document of unification introduce d a semblance of control to the central government. The Articles of Confederation helped address a feeble government system and pointed out a number of failures. Nonetheless The Articles of Confederation offered very little success as a government tool. The U.S. Constitution was put in writing in 1787. The new U.S. Constitution attempted to address the unsuccessful failures of the Articles of Confederation. For example, the Congress had no authority to charge taxes on the states. The system relied on donations from the states. The notion of federal taxation was opposed by the states. This caused an overpowering rise in currency because Congress did not have proper funding.Another defect of Congress was that it failed be in command of the foreign commerce. As a result, merchants and consumers had to pay high prices. Though Congress did possess the power to pass regulations and laws they were not allowed The thirteen American colonies of Great Britain revolted and declared independence for good reason. The actions of the British governm ent the king deprived Americans of numerous rights that were guaranteed to all other British citizens. In fact, many of these rights were guaranteed as early as 1215 since the American colonists were British citizens they had good reason to expect those rights to be recognized. They werent and in 1776 the American colonies declared independence and became the United States of America. When Americans wrote the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, they made sure to fix the problems.Ã These are some of the ways they fix the problems The king exercised absolute power. The power of British kings had been limited since 1215 almost 400 years before the first American colony was settled. The US Constitution divides power among three branches of government, and there are checks and balances to make sure that no single branch gets too powerful. Colonials were taxed without their consent. British citizens were represented in Parliament American colonists were not represented in Parliament, even though they were British citizens The US Constitution gives Congress the power to tax US citizens, and US citizens are represented in Congress by representatives they elect. July 16, 1987 began with a light breeze a cloudless sky and a spirit of celebration. On that day two hundred senators and representatives boarded a special train for a journey to Philadelphia to celebrate a sing ular congressional anniversary. Exactly two hundred years earlier the framers of the U.S. Constitution, meeting at Independence Hall, had reached a supremely important agreement. Their so called Great Compromise Connecticut Compromise in honor of its architects Connecticut delegates Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth provided a dual system of congressional representation. In the House of Representatives each state would be assigned a number of seats in proportion to its population. In the Senate all states would have the same number of seats. Today we take this arrangement for granted in the wilting hot summer of 1787 it was a new idea. In the weeks before July 16 1787 the framers had made several important decisions about the Senates structure. They turned aside a proposal to have the House of Representatives elect senators from lists submitted by the individual state legislatures and agreed that those legislatures should elect their own senators. By July 16 the convention had already set the minimum age for senators at thirty and the term length at six years as opposed to twenty-five for House members with two year terms. James Madison explained that these distinctions based on the nature of the senatorial trust, which requires greater extent of information and stability of character would allow the Senate to proceed with more coolness with more system and with more wisdom than the popular electedbranch The issue of representation however threatened to destroy the seven week old convention. Delegates from the large states believed that because their states contributed proportionally more to the nations financial and defensiveÃ resources they should enjoy proportionally greater representation in the Senate as well as in the House. Small-state delegates demanded, with comparable intensity, that all states be equally represented in both houses. When Sherman proposed the compromise, Benjamin Franklin agreed that each state should have an equal vote in the Senate in all mattersexcept those involving money. Over the Fourth of July holiday delegates worked out a compromise plan that sidetracked Franklins proposal. On July 16 the convention adopted the Great Compromise by a heart stopping margin of one vote. As the 1987 celebrants duly noted without that vote there would likely have been no Constitution. I think the bill of rights would be the perfect discussion what is the bill of rights The original Constitution as proposed in 1787 in Philadelphia and as ratified by the sta tes, contained very few individual rights guarantees as the framers were primarily focused on establishing the machinery for an effective federal government. A proposal by delegate Charles Pinckney to include several rights guarantees including liberty of the press and a ban on quartering soldiers in private homes was submitted to the Committee on Detail on August 20 1787 but the Committee did not adopt any of Pinckney recommendations. The matter came up before the Convention on September 12 1787 and following a brief debate proposals to include a Bill or Rights in the Constitution were rejected. As adopted, the Constitution included only a few specific rights guarantees protection against states impairing the obligation of contracts provisions that prohibit both the federal and state governments from enforcingex post facto lawslaws that allow punishment for an action that was not criminal at the time it was undertaken and provisions barringbills of attainderlegislative determinations of guilt and punishment Art. I Sections 9 and 10. The framers and notably James Madison its principal architect believed that the Constitution protected lib erty primarily through its division of powers that made it difficult for an oppressive majorities to form and capture power to be used against minorities. Delegates also probably feared that a debate over liberty guarantees might prolong or even threaten the fiercely-debated compromises that had been made over the long hot summer of 1787. In the ratification debate Ant Federalists opposed to the Constitution complained that the new system threatened liberties and suggested that if the delegates had truly cared about protecting individual rights they would have includedÃ provisions that accomplished that. With ratification in serious doubt Federalists announced a willingness to take up the matter of series of amendments to be called the Bill of Rights soon after ratification and the First Congress comes into session. The concession wasundoubtedlynecessary to secure the Constitutions hard fought ratification. Thomas Jefferson, who did not attend the Constitutional Convention,in a December 1787 letter to Madisoncalled the omission of a Bill of Rights a major mistake A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth. James Madison was skeptical of the value of a listing of rights, calling it a parchment barrier. Madisons preference at the Convention to safeguard liberties was by giving Congress an unlimited veto over state laws and creating a joint executive judicial council of revision that could veto federal laws. Despite his skepticism, by the fall of 1788 Madison believed that a declaration of rights should be added to the Constitution. Its value, in Madisons view, was in part educational, in part as a vehicle that might be used to rally people against a future oppressive government and finally in an argumentborrowed from Thomas Jefferson Madison argued that a declaration of rights would help install the judiciary as guardian ofindividual rights against the other branches.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
There have been many amendments that have made their way through the congress since first the constitution was instated. A few, however, never made it into the United States constitution. There were six amendments that were never ratified into the constitution. Some were justified in their reasons for not being ratified, but then there are some which to this day no one quite understands why they were not ratified into the constitution. In Americans attempt to be a fair and just country, its government made many different decisions that were later written into a simple document that would have such an impact on a nation and even the world. The six amendments that did not make the cut were either later rewritten or forgotten completely but here in this paper all six will be looked at and analyzed. The six amendments are Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Title of Nobility Amendment, Corwin Amendment, Child Labor Amendment, Equal Rights Amendment, and District of Columbia Voting Rig hts Amendment. The first amendment discussed is the Congressional Apportionment Amendment. This amendment would strictly regulate the size of congressional districts for representation in the House of Representatives. This amendment was actually the first in the original proposal for the Bill of Rights. Among other provisions, the amendment stated that after the House grew beyond 200 members, there would be no more than one representative for every 50,000 citizens. Eleven states ratified theShow MoreRelatedThe Size Of The House Of Representatives891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn 1787, one of the most debated issues was the size of the House of Representatives. During the Constitutional Convention, the delegates proposed that 40,000 citizens should be represented by one congressional district. 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It can also be apparent that the drawing of the districts in recent years has been less than about population numbers, but as to who the populationRead MoreEssay on The Electoral College1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschoose electors or the apportionment of electors. Finally they had chosen a system of electing a president. Winston Churchill later said, the electoral college system is probably the worst possible method of choosing a president-except for all the others (Glennon 3). States went three main routes in choosing electors: the legislative system, where state legislatures choose the electors; a district system, where electors are selected by the people of each congressional district; and the generalRead MoreAmendments Essay 82136 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAmendments Main article: List of amendments to the United States Constitution The Constitution has a total of 27 amendments. The first ten, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified simultaneously. The following seventeen were ratified separately.  The Bill of Rights (1Ãâ"10) United States Bill of Rights currently housed in the National Archives Main article: United States Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Those amendmentsRead MoreA Brief Look Into American Tax Structure1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Brief Look Into American Tax Structure GAAP vs. IRS Tax Accounting CJ Moore Highline CC January 19, 2014 Prior to the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment of the American Constitution, the majority of the income received by the federal government was through tariffs and excise taxation (Pollack, 2013). Tariffs are taxes Ã¢â¬Å"levied by governments on the value including freight and insurance of imported products (Tariffs and Import Fees, 2014)Ã¢â¬ . Excise taxes are Ã¢â¬Å"taxes paid when purchasesRead MoreA Government Agency With Fice Of Quality, Performance, And Oversight1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagespayersÃ¢â¬â¢ money and have legislative policies to comply with. The different phases of the VAÃ¢â¬â¢s budget cycle are described by the Department of the Treasury as Ã¢â¬Å"life cyclesÃ¢â¬ and include the following; Executive budget formulation and transmittal, congressional action, budget execution and control, audit and review. (VA.gov/finance). The VA has endured harsh public and political criticism for their health care backlogs and erroneous disability claims in the past years. Therefore, Legislation has proposedRead MoreThe Voting Rights Act 421809 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAlaskan languages, and Asian languages. Some of the changes to the new amendment within the Voting Rights Act prohibited literacy tests as a requirement for voter registration. It also required jurisdictions with large minority language speaking populations to have non-English speaking ballots as well as oral voting instructions that conformed to the language minorities within their districts. Additionally, the new amendments to the Voting Rights Act also protected minorities from voter dilutionRead MoreThe Electoral College System Is Outdated And Unfair1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschose the president (Edwards 12). What is the elector college? There are two stages in the Electoral College collection. The first stage is the collection of the popular votes in all fifty states except for Nebraska and Maine, those states use congressional districts to choose their electors (Schumaker 12). The presidential candidates that get the popular mass in each state win the electoral votes that the constitutional provisions grant (Schumaker 12). The last stage inheres of the national count
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Cognitive Development is a theory built upon stages in the development of children. Each stage in this theory pertains to specific age ranges, and involves cognitive achievements and limitations distinct to that age. The theory attempts to depict how children understand the world throughout their development. Though the theory follows an age range with certain the theory itself should not always be seen as concrete (Bibace, 2013). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development can be used in classrooms around the world to have an underlying understanding of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development based on their age. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory can also be used to help identify developmental delay in children compared to their peers at similar agesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, in observation one afternoon a student hid an item behind his back from Keller. Keller proceeded to run behind the students back to retrieve the item. In PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s second stage, from age two to age six, the child is said to be in the preoperational stage. A major achievement happening within this stage is the development of symbolic functioning. Children continue to learn in this stage through pretend play (Barrouillet, 2015). In the preoperational stage the presence of egocentrism continues to exist. An identification mark of this stage is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to understand consistency. This misunderstanding of consistency involves the inability to understand that a mass or volume of an item can remain the same even when the form or placement of the item has changed (Beins, 2016). Examples of the preoperational stage-taking place can be seen in the orange room through various activities. Children in the orange room are prime examples of the emerging skills that come out of the preoperational stage. For example Keller often engages in dramatic imaginative play while incorporating many different items as symbols wit hin the play. In one case Keller used a protractor to act as a steering wheel for a plane. Using this item as a symbol for something else shows KellerÃ¢â¬â¢s continued growth within this stage. There has not yet been direct observation of his understanding of consistency. The third of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stages is the concreteShow MoreRelatedDevelopmental Theory Essay1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShortcomings Of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory. This essay will be summarising the contributions and shortcomings of the Cognitive-Developmental theory and firstly explore the background and key conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s work behind child development. Secondly PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about cognitive change and the four stages of development from birth which are the sensorimotor stage, the pre-operational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage and how this impacts development. Thirdly the mainRead MoreJean Piaget and the Four Major Stages of Cognitive Theory Essay897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJEAN PIAGET and THE FOUR MAJOR STAGES OF COGNITIVE THEORY Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The patriarch of cognitive theory was Jean Piaget(1896-1980). Piaget was a biologist, who became interested in human thinking while working to evaluate the results of child intelligence tests. Ã As Piaget worked he noted the correlation between the childs age and the type of error they made. Intrigued by the discovery that certain errors occurred predictably at certain age, he began to focus his time and energyRead MorePiaget Of A Child s Brain Development Theory1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare constantly learning about new theories and expanding the knowledge on those that we already know, about the physical and mental development of Children. Through past and present theorists, we are shown whole new aspects of how a child develops to make up the being that they become. Through PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËCongnitive development theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ we are shown the stages of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain development with a strong focus on the ages newborn Ã¢â¬â 11 years onwards. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s m ain theory is that children are able to constructRead MoreCompare Piaget and Vygotsky Essay1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesv Vygotsky Cognitive development is the term used to describe the construction of thought process, including remembering, problem solving and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. In this essay I will compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, both of which were enormously significant contributors to the cognitive development component to/in psychology. In addition to this I will also weigh up the strengths and weaknesses of each theory and outline howRead MoreTheories Of Development : Piagets Theory Of Cognitive Development1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPiagets theory of cognitive development In the 1960s and 1970s, the Freudian psychology was changed with the initiation of the empirical methods to study the human behavior. Psychologist and philosopher Jean Piaget empirically verified, moving towards the cognitive development theory to provide the new perspective to the individual in getting awareness about the developmental stages of the children. Just like Freud, Piaget thought that human development could only be described in stages. On theRead MoreVygotsky And Piaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development Innate Or Learned?1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschicken or the egg? Is cognitive development innate or learned? These are two age old questions that have been discusssed extensively. The purpose of this paper is to offer insight into the answer of the latter by briefly comparing and contrasting Lev Vygotsky and Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive developmental theories. Both psychologistsÃ¢â¬â¢ theories will be outlined, as will the similarities and differences between the two . Brief Summary of the Theories of Piaget and Vygotsky PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Jean Piaget believedRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Experiential Learning1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn this childhood developmental study, a comparative analysis of the theories of Lee Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Howard Gardner will be evaluated through the lens of experiential learning. Through VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s realization of the childhood learning through Ã¢â¬Å"hands-onÃ¢â¬ experience (experiential learning), the cultural and socioeconomic factors defines the progress a child makes in the individual progression towards growth in the educational system. Piaget beheld similar views on experiential learning inRead MoreJean Piaget s Theory Of Cognitive Psychology1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof the Cognitive Psychology movement and one of the most influential developmental psychologists of the 20th century. His work on schemas, adaptation, and his development theory are still being used today in most professional settings as a way to understand the development of the child. His work on schemas led to a new understanding of mental illness, paving the way for Cognitive-Behavioral therapies and other therapeutic methods that are based off faulty thinking. Before the Cognitive movementRead MoreEssay on Psychology1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¢behaviourism-the study of behaviour in an objective way. Ã¢â¬ ¢social learning theory/cognitive behaviourism Ã¢â¬ ¢attachment theory Ã¢â¬ ¢evolutionary theory Ã¢â¬ ¢behavioural genetics Ã¢â¬ ¢PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development Ã¢â¬ ¢EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Ã¢â¬ ¢developmental systems Define and describe the following research methods Ã¢â¬ ¢correlational study Ã¢â¬ ¢experimental study Ã¢â¬ ¢cross sectional study Ã¢â¬ ¢longitudinal study Study Questions 1. Define cohort and briefly summarize at least one major differenceRead MoreVygotsky And Vygotsky s Theory Of Choice908 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSingleton, 2010). Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are two well-known cognitive psychologist who each had theories regarding language development and cognition. Both Piaget and Vygotsky had similarities in their theories as well as differences between them. While they were both conveyed great contributions into the development of current psychology, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas are notably the theory of choice in development. Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory suggested that children progressed through stages while they were
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Luminous Soul Method Prana Series: Where is Your Energy? By Manorama Ã¢â¬Å"You are beautiful. You are powerful. You are free. You are a Luminous Soul.Ã¢â¬ ~ Manorama Once when I was working with a private student at my office in NYC I noticed that she was talking non-stop and her eyes were darting here and there. Her energy was wild. What I mean by wild is that she engaged her energy in an unaware way. In an effort to help her begin to gain awareness of her relationship with her energy, so that she could gain greater stability within, I posed the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Margaret, do you know where your energy is?Ã¢â¬ She looked at me, then around the room, above and behind her and finally turned to me saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Uh well Ã¢â¬ ¦ No I donÃ¢â¬â¢t.Ã¢â¬ I smiled at the honest and sincere way in which she engaged the question. Ã¢â¬Å"I believe you,Ã¢â¬ I told her. Margaret really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know where her energy was. The thing Margaret didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know is that her energy is her. Maybe as you read this you are thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"Well, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where my energy is either.Ã¢â¬ Through the Luminous Soul Method, I show students that it is their job to know where their prana, their energy, is. To develop a close relationship with energy is important because energy is your soul, energy is you. Knowing About Versus Living In We live within the idea that the body and mind are who we are. This is not unusual. But from a yogic perspective it is not the whole truth. When we are young, we are told that our essence is called soul, but we are givenShow MoreRelatedThe Study Of Buddhism And Hinduism1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbeyond human origins. Hinduism represents the way of life and faith of the many people in India. It is unknown as to how it came about, and where Hinduism was originated, but the beliefs of the Hindu s is very different than the beliefs of the Christians and Islam. Hinduism is the belief in reincarnation, dharma and in three main gods. No one knows where Hinduism came from, or who started it. It is thought that Hinduism was originated from the Vedas. The Vedas, is the oldest written documentsRead MoreStylistic Comparison Essay examples778 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages With this blend of high contrast paints your fascination with his characters beautiful sorrow grows deep inside of you. This painting, seen through modern eyes, gives off energy and increased intensity because of Delacroixs long, nervous brush strokes. He uses dark hues and neutral tones to portray a ghostly image that stirs your imagination. He seems to be almost floating in the black abyss of space. Delacroix uses color to create pure energy and emotion. These colors and tones are veryRead More Mans Search for the Purpose of Life Essay5493 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesignorant about the prime source of energy from which his body and mind derive their strength - soul - his true self. He has so much identified himself with the body that he is unable to distinguish his soul from the body. In fact, he does not know that his real self is something separate from the body. Have we ever thought about the propelling force in us? Have we recognized the indweller of the house? Soul is a conscious entity. Just as any essence has its basic source, soul too has an ultimate sourceRead MoreExploring And Identifying Consciousness Through Observation And Understanding The Movement Of Naturally Occurring4004 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesmaterialistic science, which roughly are that, Humans are machines, that all matter is unconscious, the laws and constants of nature are fixed, the total amount of matter and energy is always the same, nature is purposeless, everything you inherit is in your genes, memory is stored inside your brain, your mind is inside your head, psychic phenomena such as telepathy is impossible and mechanistic medicine is the only medicine that really works, He says this is a default world view and that all of theseRead MoreAs a Man Thinketh7418 Words Ã |Ã 30 PagesDivine Perfection; by the abuse and wrong application of thought, he descends below the level of the beast. Between these two extremes are all the grades of character, and man is their ma ker and master. Of all the beautiful truths pertaining to the soul which have been restored and brought to light in this age, none is more gladdening or fruitful of divine promise and confidence than this - that man is the master of thought, the molder of character, and maker and shaper of condition, environment,Read MoreRole of education in personality development13618 Words Ã |Ã 55 Pagesoften called the soul-force, which when awakened, pours itself into the instruments of Prakriti, and it is this meeting of the Soul-Force and Prakriti of Nature that causes the real formation of Personality. The greater the opening of Nature to receive the flow of the Soul-Force, the greater is the resultant personality, and the fullness of Personality would be achieved initially by full development of mind, life and body under the sovereign guidance, rule and will of the Soul- Force, and a complete